How To Send Api Key In Header Postman

One have to send credentials each time a service is called. ) in almost real time with the Mailjet Event API. NET framework that dramatically simplifies building RESTful (REST like) HTTP services that are cross platform and device and browser agnostic. Introduction. If you do not have an API Key, you can easily generate one in the Postman Integrations Dashboard , and click the "Get API Key" button. NET Web AP I is a framework that allows us to build HTTP Services at the top of. They are generated on the project making the call, and you can restrict their use to an environment such as an IP address range, or an Android or iOS app. Downloading and installing Postman tool and testing the Web API with it. See what you can do with the full suite of Yelp Fusion APIs. Make Medium yours. Learn how to make PayPal API calls. You can of course add as many desired headers as required, and their value can contain property expansions as usual. If it can’t, it should send in the next requested format, and so on. This post is really more about using the API outside of any other specific framework – such as writing calls in Go, Python, or pulling data for something like Grafana – than it is about PowerShell specifically. To set the authorization parameters for a request, enter the values for the access and secret keys. As you can see we have added keys with value for the listed items. Home Menu; Browse API's by category. Please provide me the steps to follow. Introduction. prettyPrint. A developer can request an API key and easily authenticate to the API service using this key. The last form accepts not only function calls, but any type of expression. Request headers. In PowerShell version 3, the cmdlets Invoke-RestMethod and Invoke-WebRequest where introduced. Step 3: Parameters (API reference tutorial) Stay current with the latest in tech comm Keep current with the latest trends in technical communication by subscribing to the I'd Rather Be Writing newsletter. You can do this in Cloud Shell. Use Postman to Call an API. Dispatching Data to Authorize. (type: bool ). Step 1: Apply for API key The first thing you need to do is to apply for an API key. One of the lesser used — compared to say the post API, hook API, or options API — is the HTTP API, which simplifies making HTTP requests. js and Mongoose. Are you having trouble sending emails from your WordPress site? One easy way to solve this is by sending WordPress emails using the Gmail SMTP server. * is the new postman. All requests to the Web API v3 must be made via HTTPS. How to use this API documentation You may browse the API routes without authentication, but if you wish to send requests to the API and see response data, then you must authenticate. I can send "api-key" (hyphen instead of underscore) or "x-api-key" or "foo", but for some reason, not "api_key". As work flows throughout your organization, Box protects your content with advanced security controls, encryption key management, and complete information governance. headers - a plain javascript object consisted of key/value pairs to sent along with ajax request. For the Detect Language API. While using basic authentication we add the word Basic before entering the username and password. Header in which to put absolute path filename. 0, it’s easier than ever to sync email activity with your database, link campaign stats to your database, and test different calls and endpoints before pushing to production. The API has its own user interface accessible from a web browser. For the purposes of this post, our example REST API integration is going to be super basic. 0, parameters are defined in the parameters section of an operation or path. Q&A for Work. POSTMAN Request Using Replacement Key. Give the SOAP header and the body. php file to set up Guzzle for making HTTP calls. how to store this authentication token. ” Postman is a popular tool in the API space, and they’ve recently released their own API Network, an aggregation of over 100 critical APIs in industries such as Business Solutions, eCommerce, Financial Services, Travel, and other areas. An example of an API that passes in extra headers is SetContainerACL. I'm using Auth0 for auth. This is where we are going to set the variables we need for these. All API requests must pass the following headers: X-COUPA-API-KEY with a Coupa API key; ACCEPT header with value set to application/xml. A set of key/value pairs that configure the Ajax request. Basic auth will also authenticate LDAP users. However, API documentation can be difficult to navigate, and figuring out where to place the required headers, query strings, and payloads can become confusing. POST apps - Add application ; POST apps - Add prebuilt application ; POST apps - Assign a LUIS azure accounts to an application ; DELETE apps - Delete application. API user keys are available in Pardot under {your email address} > Settings in the API User Key row. For example, Twitter has an API that allows you to request tweets in a format that makes it easy to import into your own application. It is so flexible that it can reach a broad range of clients, including the Browsers and portable devices. 1) A super powerful node. See the Specification tab for details on each endpoint. Please provide me the steps to follow. Postman allows you to setup environments that allow you to set and get global variables. REST API is an open-source plugin bundled since TeamCity 5. To do this, click the Create my Access Token. 0) Overview. Pretty much every endpoint in my API requires. ONLYOFFICE API describes the main methods that allow you to interact with different ONLYOFFICE components. The API will return 404 (rather than a 403) in response to a request with a missing or incorrect API key in order to prevent leaking the existence of resources to unauthorized users. The API key is included in the header of POST requests that send messages; Generates message IDs to uniquely identify each message it sends. Add parameter Headers. This article describes how to work with SharePoint list items, basically performing CRUD operations, using the combination of REST API and jQuery Ajax. You can set any string as the header name. If the API key is not valid, the request will not proceed. The API key created dialog displays your newly created API key. WSDL is XML file which describes available API operations and structure of request and response. But sometimes you just need to make a simple API request and get a response without writing code or using cURL at the command line. Notes Starting from Firefox 49, empty headers are returned as empty strings in case the preference network. It's a good practice to pass the API key in a header rather than in a query parameter. Wildcard segment. I'm sure you already know the famous tool call Postman. Then there are two parts containing image data with names image0 and image1. ) Click Send. Before Firefox 49 empty headers had been ignored. ProjectName-Api-Key: abcde but also it's possible and ideologically correct to use the Authorization header with a custom scheme, eg: Authorization: ApiKey abcde On the other hand, I found a consideration that a custom Authorization scheme can be unexpected and unsupported by some clients and leads to custom code anyway, so it's better to use a. Respecting HTTP Uniform Interface in status codes, method semantics of safety and idempotence, authentication, and conditional requests will help developers use your API. If the key is not found in the object, returns the default value. Static Token / API Key (when need to pass an API key in HTTP header) Dynamic Token (same as Static Token method except that each time you need to log in and retrieve a fresh API key) JWT Token (As per RFC 7519) OAuth If you are trying to access REST API resource, it is a huge chance, you will need to use OAuth Connection. First, open a terminal and go to {{your-SuiteCRM-root}} you can find it in Api/docs/postman. I'm sure you already know the famous tool call Postman. I want to send couple of headers with the requests, but only one header gets added every time. Unable to send post requests to REST through HTTPClient I've got a REST Api up and running that works fine with Postman which I'm trying to figure out how to call. Postman is chrome browser extension, so you can download and use in chrome. If the client making the API request has an invalid API key, then the key will fail to authenticate. Please note that you must be registered customer to use the API, registering is free and only takes a minute, you can register here. In Perl, there are many ways to make HTTP requests by using existing Perl modules. If you have not read these two tutorials yet, please do that before proceeding. handleUncaughtExceptions Boolean When true restify will use a domain to catch and respond to any uncaught exceptions that occur in it’s handler stack. NET and Java. The Write API Key is found on the API Keys tab of the channel view. Authorizing a request. Text Analytics API (v2. Enter your AWS IAM user's access key ID in the AccessKey input field. In order to run Postman tests in the command line as part of some CI process, there is a separate tool called Newman. I will connect it with Lumen and create a REST API. You can find your API Key in your Control Panel Mailgun Documentation ¶ Learn how to send email from your app, SMTP vs API, verifying your domain, email reputation; we’ll explain it all here. Hello, I am trying to do a REST API Call(GET) from ECC to a third party system and need to pass the API Key as a custom HTTP Header element. 58, you may get 401 Unauthorized errors from calls to the API that involve redirects. There are numerous ways to get this but I chose to use Fiddler. As REST is an acronym for REpresentational State Transfer, statelessness is key. Sending data to the server is one of the most fundamental tasks of Retrofit. Use the Webhooks UI in the Authorize. It is a simple REST API that allows you to send SMS, check your SMS credit balance and check the delivery status of a sent SMS. The people behind Postman also offer an add-on package called Jetpacks, which includes some automation tools and, most crucially, a Javascript testing. Steps: Go to the API Reference to see which methods exist and which one specifically you would like to test. Yes @Raja Rakesh Kumar you have to use a query param to send it. Manage your APIs through every stage of the API lifecycle. With everything ready, click the blue 'Send' button to push it off to the API. To retrieve a list of sessions under a particular build, query the server with the build ID. In response header, we will get WWW-Authenticate as one of the header and that contains the necessary information required for next step. NET model you had to work with previously turning a request into a concise one liner similar to curl (Which is also an alias for Invoke-WebRequest in PowerShell). You will be given a private and public key used to authenticate your API calls. In postman, the headers can be seen in the Headers tab. Most HTTP clients support sending a request using the basic authentication method natively, and so does Postman for Chrome. API Keys are very simple to use from the consumer perspective: You get an API key from the service (in essence a shared secret). Okta is a standards-compliant OAuth 2. I think oauth allows this. Calls received from each API key are monitored and included in the Amazon CloudWatch Logs you can enable for each stage. Usually it ends up in writing boiler plate code to get around this. If you'd like to test functionality that already exists, or if you've added new functionality, then this is a great way to test the code without having to build an entire app. Like an HTML form on a web page, I want to perform a POST with a file as one of the pieces of data to post into a server. Enter the keys and values for email and password as the case maybe. Any help is highly appreciated. API Gateway can generate API keys and associate them with an usage plan. Setup a private space for you and your coworkers to ask questions and share information. Web administrators who use Internet Information Services (IIS) may need to periodically disable the caching of content that changes frequently. A wrapper is an API client, that are commonly used to wrap the API into easy to use functions by doing the API calls itself. Make Medium yours. Amount is always returned as a string which you should be careful when parsing to have correct decimal precision. Working with REST API or JQuery comes handy while working with SharePoint Apps or creating Custom Forms which involves Client Side Code. Add the key to an Authorization header. So in the end it’s possible to secure API keys in a single page JavaScript app when you control the client and the API its accessing but things get a little sketchy once you’re trying to access a third party API with a client-side app. If we return null, then that means that the user is not authenticated. Often, if we are working with an API, a lot of the headers we send to that API remain the same (e. Set the correct Base64-encoded clientID:clientsecret in the authentication header. Prepare to test in the sandbox. There are two ways to send emails using Mailgun API: You can pass the components of the messages such as To, From, Subject, HTML and text parts, attachments, etc. Click Send and you should get a response that includes oauth_token and oauth_token_secret :. In this example, we make use of Postman, but you can use any REST API client. passing api key in parameters makes it difficult for clients to keep their APIkeys secret, they tend to leak keys on a regular basis. After all, it was created so that we could do AJAX the right way; fetch has the advantage of hindsight. Introduction This article will help guide you through utilizing Postman to call a Microsoft Graph Call using the authorization code flow. All API requests must be send to the following URL via POST: https://cointracking. Your API key identifies your project and provides you with API access, quota, and reports. The TeamCity REST API can be used for integrating applications with TeamCity and for those who want to script interactions with the TeamCity server. The people behind Postman also offer an add-on package called Jetpacks, which includes some automation tools and, most crucially, a Javascript testing. Web API is a feature of the ASP. string Media type of the body sent to the API. However, API documentation can be difficult to navigate, and figuring out where to place the required headers, query strings, and payloads can become confusing. This tool is an HTTP Client. PowerShell makes working with rest API's easy. Hit "Send" and you should see that the patient is successfully created: If you repeat the patient search, you should now see the patient record: Next steps. JSON Web Token (JWT) is the approach of securely transmitting data across communication channel. Overwrite the value which is set by addHeader(String, String) before in the invocation sequence. Gmail API v1 (revision 105) public class Gmail. The python script, taken from the Oxford Project git account makes no use of the Ocp-Apim-Subscription-Key header in the HTTP request it sends - it uses only primary key as the client_secret value in the multi-part payload and it works just fine. If you're only performing GET operations, you should be able to use a read-only key here. Save the resulting keys somewhere safe! You’ll need them to follow the rest of the steps. It is so flexible that it can reach a broad range of clients, including the Browsers and portable devices. If invalid JSON is passed in, the validate parameter will be false, and an explanation of why parsing failed will be added. From our Rest basics we already know what an HTTP Request and HTTP Response is. Testing JIRA API with Postman August 21, 2019 William Andrus Leave a comment Recently I was getting 401 Unauthorized errors anytime a ticket was being created in Jira and was wondering if someone has changed the password or something. Test Web Requests in Fiddler Composer – Replay existing REST API requests or send new one (Edit Header, Body, URL) How to view and format JSON / XML data in Fiddler By default Fiddler will show you JSON / XML Tab if request body or response data in that format (see JSON / XML tabs on top and bottom panels). Have in mind that the use of the Google Geocoding API is subject to a limit of 40,000 requests per month, so be careful not to exceed this limit. If you come from an IT Pro background like me, I have probably scared you off already by mentioning terms like Rest API, RegEx, JSON & OAuth. mockId is the id that you received upon creating the mock and can be retrieved using the GET All Mocks endpoint in the Postman Pro API. Each request sent to your skill includes an API access token (apiAccessToken) that encapsulates the permissions granted to your skill. All requests needs an authentication. I can send "api-key" (hyphen instead of underscore) or "x-api-key" or "foo", but for some reason, not "api_key". Whether to include absolute path filename in a header. M Series,T Series,PTX Series,MX Series. Take special note about how we are setting up the headers for each request, before sending the request. POSTMAN Request Using Replacement Key. The Send API is the main API used to send messages to users, including text, attachments, structured message templates, sender actions, and more. NET Web API AuthorizationFilterAttribute. Navigate to the API Gateway service and create a new API called html-response-api. If chaching needs to be overridden then response must include cache respective cache headers. Gmail API v1 (revision 105) public class Gmail. Most APIs today use an API Key to authenticate legitimate clients. A key-value map specifying required or optional response parameters that API Gateway can send back to the caller. In other words, only apply these headers when you know the resource would otherwise be sent. ONLYOFFICE API describes the main methods that allow you to interact with different ONLYOFFICE components. The reason is that the different browsers send different Accept headers. But when I send post request by suppl. a login and secret key. Almost every REST API must have some sort of authentication. We need to send a 'login' request (with valid credentials) to receive a token as a cookie value and then set it as an 'environment variable'. gps_fixedFind Nearest Station. 6 / x64 Issue Report: I cannot send "api_key" as a custom header. Here are the three steps: Take the string “username:password” and encode it using Base64. We're using these libraries because we're not interested in the details of how to send HTTP requests or how to parse and create valid JSON; we just want to use them to accomplish these tasks. The process is very similar to the one used for Postman, with the exception that it shows how you can call Azure REST API using cUrl which is more suitable to be embedded in scripts and used in a DevOps process. String: The header containing the message key when sending data to Kafka. Embed images in your emails. Computer Vision API - v1. Postman is a Google Chrome app for interacting with HTTP APIs. API keys provide full access to your account. Chrome sends the strange origin and will not allow a site to send any origin of its own. As per HTTP Standard you can pass credentials very simple way using basic Authorization header. Here are the most populars API testing tools: SoapUI is the most popular API Testing Tool! Who does not know him? Postman is a SoapUI alternative application to test web services; Apache JMeter is an Apache project, it allows to analyze and measure the performance of a variety of services (Webservices, JMS, HTTP, ). Finally assemble all the components to create the SAS token. The code snippets presented here illustrate how to set HTTP request header fields, as well as data enclosed in a request body. For the purposes of this post, our example REST API integration is going to be super basic. After all, it was created so that we could do AJAX the right way; fetch has the advantage of hindsight. NET and Java. API Key Usage. This tutorial demonstrates how to perform to token-based authentication in Angular 6 using the Web API and [EnableCors (origins: "*", headers we will make a request from the postman where. I have an Image Uploading API which I call from android and Its working fine. For example - try to get some attributes from the "cnt" object of SDM REST API as following:. The request body is an IO input stream. I can send "api-key" (hyphen instead of underscore) or "x-api-key" or "foo", but for some reason, not "api_key". Go live with your application. Postman Environment and Global variables are covered in this classification and we strongly encourage their use for storing authentication keys and passwords. In this example, cookie authentication is applied globally to the whole API using the security key at the root level of the specification. Add("Authorization", "QWxhZGRpbjpvcGVuIHNlc2FtZQ==") Where "req" is the HttpWebRequest object. The client SHOULD NOT send the From header field without the user's approval, as it might conflict with the user's privacy interests or their site's security policy. This is a super useful tool for test your API and looks at the response you get from your server. If we return null, then that means that the user is not authenticated. To do this in general terms an “extract variable” policy will be used to extract the apikey value from the query parameter and store it. Using passwords with Jira REST API basic authentication. Step 1: Apply for API key The first thing you need to do is to apply for an API key. Make Medium yours. headers - a plain javascript object consisted of key/value pairs to sent along with ajax request. To do this, click the Create my Access Token. Constructing a POST request. Note: here “q” is the key represents query and ToolsQA is the value of the key or search term for the query. 0) E77878-01. newer How to Generate Azure Storage Shared Access Signature (SAS) Tokens in Postman's Pre-request Script Sandbox older Solution to Azure Function Message: Read only - because you have started editing with source control, this view is read only. Postman works by sending HTTP requests and can add request headers and parameters. I am using OAuth1. Once you get your virtual phone number, you can use the API to manage outbound messages (“sending”) and inbound messages (“receiving”). Since Firefox 50 the preference defaults to true. I’m coding a web app that needs to use oAuth to fetch data. However, we do not recommend you use API keys for authorization. The user interface is simple and when you hit send it will do exactly as told. On the server side I reconstruct the hash using the saved private key. If the request is synchronous, this method doesn't return until the response has arrived. Logging requests and responses. Request Parameters in Postman. Requesting API data through JavaScript XHR. Postman API Network. In either case, this causes your WordPress emails to not be delivered. 15063 / x64 I'm trying to get postman to send the configured client certificate to my target web server/host. Figure 2, open Postman for sending REST API requests to Azure. NET Core Web API series. Static Token / API Key (when need to pass an API key in HTTP header) Dynamic Token (same as Static Token method except that each time you need to log in and retrieve a fresh API key) JWT Token (As per RFC 7519) OAuth If you are trying to access REST API resource, it is a huge chance, you will need to use OAuth Connection. Requests that send data need a header telling the API what kind of data is being sent. Call the API. Hovering over the header name can give you a description of the header according to the HTTP spec. Next, we will take a look at how the security token known as the "Application Key" or "API Key" can be supplied at runtime. Once you click on header you can see different information such as below. com? I only seem to be able to register and log into opensensors. Constructing a POST request. It is a best practice to include the Content-Type: application/json header in all of your requests. If you come from an IT Pro background like me, I have probably scared you off already by mentioning terms like Rest API, RegEx, JSON & OAuth. Rate Limiting Header. API Keys are very simple to use from the consumer perspective: You get an API key from the service (in essence a shared secret). It it possible to send a multipart/form-data (enctype HTTP header) POST that includes a file using drupal_http_request? I don't seem to see anything in the code about it, but wanted to make sure. put apikey into http authentication header #102. The request parameters in JSON format needs to be sent in the body of the HTTP request. Check you have a digital certificate, or create one if necessary. To obtain an API key, go to Your applications and register the application with the Companies House Developer Hub as an API Key application. API Keys are credentials you can create and revoke in the Console or using the API (using your "master key" AccountSid and AuthToken). Use the Payments REST API to easily and securely accept online and mobile payments. 3, Postman always computes the signature before you send the request and doesn’t save it. Training-Key. What we are going to do is check for a header called Api-Token. However, most Web APIs are meant to be consumed programmatically by client applications. Unlock a wealth of content and data from over 50 million businesses. Start by giving the SOAP Envelope tag, which is necessary, and define all the namespaces. The Postman REST Client has many other useful functions and features, including keyboard shortcuts, header presets, keyword filter for history and collections, bulk upload/import, and the ability to save API responses to disk. But when I send post request by suppl. Service accounts are usually created automatically by the API server and associated with pods running in the cluster through the ServiceAccount Admission Controller. There are two ways to send emails using Mailgun API: You can pass the components of the messages such as To, From, Subject, HTML and text parts, attachments, etc. NOTE: The preferred method to obtain client credentials is to use the Studio UI, the use of which is detailed in the Managing API Credentials document. Each request sent to your skill includes an API access token (apiAccessToken) that encapsulates the permissions granted to your skill. Currently you can authenticate via an API Token or via a Session cookie (acquired using regular login or oauth). Hi stupid_inn, At most one parameter is read from the message body in the web api framework. Add parameter Headers. Postman collection allows you to save your requests in such a way that they can be reused and shared anytime. (If that were the case, you would click the Headers tab and insert the required key-value pairs in the header. Convert a Java object to an Amqp Message and send it to a specific exchange with a specific routing key. The following instructions assume that you are using the Postman REST client. As of writing this, the plugin has over 40,000 active installs with a 4. Reload the page, select any HTTP request on the left panel, and the HTTP headers will be displayed on the right panel. These headers can be used with all authentication types: Accept, Accept-Charset, Accept-Encoding, Accept. The first is to put your AWS Access Key ID and the signature you computed into the Authorization header:. The alternative solution is to use a third party. Not all of these are valid choices for every single resource collection, user, or action. (REQUIRED*) *Required for authenticated requests unless you provide an OAuth 2. It can't get simpler than that, but this approach has some limitations. Steps to create asp. Join over 50. If cookies are required for just a subset of operations, apply security on the operation level instead of doing it globally:. A better approach is to pass it in header of request url. postman usually remembers your key-value pairs you send in header. Import a module or fetch an object from a module. Have in mind that the use of the Google Geocoding API is subject to a limit of 40,000 requests per month, so be careful not to exceed this limit. Request headers. You can choose to log everything (parameters, headers, and body), only headers, only parameters, and much more. (If that were the case, you would click the Headers tab and insert the required key-value pairs in the header. Objectives. There's much more powerful things you can do than I have outlined, so don't stop here. The following documentation explains the different API calls along with code examples to help you get the code implemented as easy as possible. Obtaining Access Tokens. Select SharePoint Online under the Select an API in step 1. they have an api with example but my application is in excel vba. Postman organises body and headers in. In this tutorial, I will show examples of sending HTTP requests in Perl by using LWP Perl module. Similar to API keys, you may find OAuth access tokens all over the place: in query string, headers, and elsewhere. This script is tested on these platforms by the author. 0 authorization method. Alternatively you can also can send it in the header & then you will change the verify api key policy to read it from the header. To run the sample, you'll need to register and provide your API key:. Net Merchant Interface to create, update, or change the status of webhooks. Available as a Chrome extension, as well as a Mac application, Postman is a robust, multi-featured application that helps you build, test, and share REST API calls easily. Add parameter Headers. js SPA and a. Let's try the api call with token authentication if you are ready. These cmdlets are a huge improvement coming from the. // I H A V E A Q U E S T I O N! I do my best to answer all comments here on YouTube but I cannot make. If I click the authorize button on the swagger page, I don't have any available authorizations. Figure 2, open Postman for sending REST API requests to Azure. Wait a minute, we are talking about authentication but why the Authorization header? Authentication vs. Postman is a Google Chrome application for testing API calls. Once you click on header you can see different information such as below. 404: Not Found: The server couldn't find the requested file. To do this, click the Create my Access Token. POST Request using Postman. newer How to Generate Azure Storage Shared Access Signature (SAS) Tokens in Postman's Pre-request Script Sandbox older Solution to Azure Function Message: Read only - because you have started editing with source control, this view is read only. Net, but before that can be done, use the secure data to populate the required objects. Instead of painstakingly updating individual values,… Continue reading "10 tips for working with Postman variables". Contact your Coupa admin or Integration Architect for generating and providing the key to you. INVALID_TOKEN. The fact-checkers, whose work is more and more important for those who prefer facts over lies, police the line between fact and falsehood on a day-to-day basis, and do a great job. Today, my small contribution is to pass along a very good overview that reflects on one of Trump’s favorite overarching falsehoods. Namely: Trump describes an America in which everything was going down the tubes under  Obama, which is why we needed Trump to make America great again. And he claims that this project has come to fruition, with America setting records for prosperity under his leadership and guidance. “Obama bad; Trump good” is pretty much his analysis in all areas and measurement of U.S. activity, especially economically. Even if this were true, it would reflect poorly on Trump’s character, but it has the added problem of being false, a big lie made up of many small ones. Personally, I don’t assume that all economic measurements directly reflect the leadership of whoever occupies the Oval Office, nor am I smart enough to figure out what causes what in the economy. But the idea that presidents get the credit or the blame for the economy during their tenure is a political fact of life. Trump, in his adorable, immodest mendacity, not only claims credit for everything good that happens in the economy, but tells people, literally and specifically, that they have to vote for him even if they hate him, because without his guidance, their 401(k) accounts “will go down the tubes.” That would be offensive even if it were true, but it is utterly false. The stock market has been on a 10-year run of steady gains that began in 2009, the year Barack Obama was inaugurated. But why would anyone care about that? It’s only an unarguable, stubborn fact. Still, speaking of facts, there are so many measurements and indicators of how the economy is doing, that those not committed to an honest investigation can find evidence for whatever they want to believe. Trump and his most committed followers want to believe that everything was terrible under Barack Obama and great under Trump. That’s baloney. Anyone who believes that believes something false. And a series of charts and graphs published Monday in the Washington Post and explained by Economics Correspondent Heather Long provides the data that tells the tale. The details are complicated. Click through to the link above and you’ll learn much. But the overview is pretty simply this: The U.S. economy had a major meltdown in the last year of the George W. Bush presidency. Again, I’m not smart enough to know how much of this was Bush’s “fault.” But he had been in office for six years when the trouble started. So, if it’s ever reasonable to hold a president accountable for the performance of the economy, the timeline is bad for Bush. GDP growth went negative. Job growth fell sharply and then went negative. Median household income shrank. The Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped by more than 5,000 points! U.S. manufacturing output plunged, as did average home values, as did average hourly wages, as did measures of consumer confidence and most other indicators of economic health. (Backup for that is contained in the Post piece I linked to above.) Barack Obama inherited that mess of falling numbers, which continued during his first year in office, 2009, as he put in place policies designed to turn it around. By 2010, Obama’s second year, pretty much all of the negative numbers had turned positive. By the time Obama was up for reelection in 2012, all of them were headed in the right direction, which is certainly among the reasons voters gave him a second term by a solid (not landslide) margin. Basically, all of those good numbers continued throughout the second Obama term. The U.S. GDP, probably the single best measure of how the economy is doing, grew by 2.9 percent in 2015, which was Obama’s seventh year in office and was the best GDP growth number since before the crash of the late Bush years. GDP growth slowed to 1.6 percent in 2016, which may have been among the indicators that supported Trump’s campaign-year argument that everything was going to hell and only he could fix it. During the first year of Trump, GDP growth grew to 2.4 percent, which is decent but not great and anyway, a reasonable person would acknowledge that — to the degree that economic performance is to the credit or blame of the president — the performance in the first year of a new president is a mixture of the old and new policies. In Trump’s second year, 2018, the GDP grew 2.9 percent, equaling Obama’s best year, and so far in 2019, the growth rate has fallen to 2.1 percent, a mediocre number and a decline for which Trump presumably accepts no responsibility and blames either Nancy Pelosi, Ilhan Omar or, if he can swing it, Barack Obama. I suppose it’s natural for a president to want to take credit for everything good that happens on his (or someday her) watch, but not the blame for anything bad. Trump is more blatant about this than most. If we judge by his bad but remarkably steady approval ratings (today, according to the average maintained by 538.com, it’s 41.9 approval/ 53.7 disapproval) the pretty-good economy is not winning him new supporters, nor is his constant exaggeration of his accomplishments costing him many old ones). I already offered it above, but the full Washington Post workup of these numbers, and commentary/explanation by economics correspondent Heather Long, are here. On a related matter, if you care about what used to be called fiscal conservatism, which is the belief that federal debt and deficit matter, here’s a New York Times analysis, based on Congressional Budget Office data, suggesting that the annual budget deficit (that’s the amount the government borrows every year reflecting that amount by which federal spending exceeds revenues) which fell steadily during the Obama years, from a peak of $1.4 trillion at the beginning of the Obama administration, to $585 billion in 2016 (Obama’s last year in office), will be back up to $960 billion this fiscal year, and back over $1 trillion in 2020. (Here’s the New York Times piece detailing those numbers.) Trump is currently floating various tax cuts for the rich and the poor that will presumably worsen those projections, if passed. As the Times piece reported: